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Book XVIII - Chapter IV 

Containing two letters in very different stiles.

"MY WORTHY FRIEND,--I informed you in my last that I was forbidden

the use of the waters, as they were found by experience rather to

increase than lessen the symptoms of my distemper. I must now

acquaint you with a piece of news, which, I believe, will afflict my

friends more than it hath afflicted me. Dr Harrington and Dr

Brewster have informed me that there is no hopes of my recovery.

"I have somewhere read, that the great use of philosophy is to learn

to die. I will not therefore so far disgrace mine as to shew any

surprize at receiving a lesson which I must be thought to have so

long studied. Yet, to say the truth, one page of the Gospel teaches

this lesson better than all the volumes of antient or modern

philosophers. The assurance it gives us of another life is a much

stronger support to a good mind than all the consolations that are

drawn from the necessity of nature, the emptiness or satiety of our

enjoyments here, or any other topic of those declamations which are

sometimes capable of arming our minds with a stubborn patience in

bearing the thoughts of death, but never of raising them to a real

contempt of it, and much less of making us think it is a real good.

I would not here be understood to throw the horrid censure of

atheism, or even the absolute denial of immortality, on all who are

called philosophers. Many of that sect, as well antient as modern,

have, from the light of reason, discovered some hopes of a future

state; but in reality, that light was so faint and glimmering, and

the hopes were so incertain and precarious, that it may be justly

doubted on which side their belief turned. Plato himself concludes

his Phaedon with declaring that his best arguments amount only to

raise a probability; and Cicero himself seems rather to profess an

inclination to believe, than any actual belief in the doctrines of

immortality. As to myself, to be very sincere with you, I never was

much in earnest in this faith till I was in earnest a Christian.

"You will perhaps wonder at the latter expression; but I assure you

it hath not been till very lately that I could, with truth, call

myself so. The pride of philosophy had intoxicated my reason, and

the sublimest of all wisdom appeared to me, as it did to the Greeks

of old, to be foolishness. God hath, however, been so gracious to

shew me my error in time, and to bring me into the way of truth,

before I sunk into utter darkness forever.

"I find myself beginning to grow weak, I shall therefore hasten to

the main purpose of this letter.

"When I reflect on the actions of my past life, I know of nothing

which sits heavier upon my conscience than the injustice I have been

guilty of to that poor wretch your adopted son. I have, indeed, not

only connived at the villany of others, but been myself active in

injustice towards him. Believe me, my dear friend, when I tell you,

on the word of a dying man, he hath been basely injured. As to the

principal fact, upon the misrepresentation of which you discarded

him, I solemnly assure you he is innocent. When you lay upon your

supposed deathbed, he was the only person in the house who testified

any real concern; and what happened afterwards arose from the

wildness of his joy on your recovery; and, I am sorry to say it,

from the baseness of another person (but it is my desire to justify

the innocent, and to accuse none). Believe me, my friend, this young

man hath the noblest generosity of heart, the most perfect capacity

for friendship, the highest integrity, and indeed every virtue which

can ennoble a man. He hath some faults, but among them is not to be

numbered the least want of duty or gratitude towards you. On the

contrary, I am satisfied, when you dismissed him from your house,

his heart bled for you more than for himself.

"Worldly motives were the wicked and base reasons of my concealing

this from you so long; to reveal it now I can have no inducement but

the desire of serving the cause of truth, of doing right to the

innocent, and of making all the amends in my power for a past

offence. I hope this declaration, therefore, will have the effect

desired, and will restore this deserving young man to your favour;

the hearing of which, while I am yet alive, will afford the utmost

consolation to,


Your most obliged,

obedient humble servant,


The reader will, after this, scarce wonder at the revolution so visibly appearing in Mr Allworthy, notwithstanding he received from Thwackum, by the same post, another letter of a very different kind, which we shall here add, as it may possibly be the last time we shall have occasion to mention the name of that gentleman.


"I am not at all surprized at hearing from your worthy nephew a

fresh instance of the villany of Mr Square the atheist's young

pupil. I shall not wonder at any murders he may commit; and I

heartily pray that your own blood may not seal up his final

commitment to the place of wailing and gnashing of teeth.

"Though you cannot want sufficient calls to repentance for the many

unwarrantable weaknesses exemplified in your behaviour to this

wretch, so much to the prejudice of your own lawful family, and of

your character; I say, though these may sufficiently be supposed to

prick and goad your conscience at this season, I should yet be

wanting to my duty, if I spared to give you some admonition in order

to bring you to a due sense of your errors. I therefore pray you

seriously to consider the judgment which is likely to overtake this

wicked villain; and let it serve at least as a warning to you, that

you may not for the future despise the advice of one who is so

indefatigable in his prayers for your welfare.

"Had not my hand been withheld from due correction, I had scourged

much of this diabolical spirit out of a boy, of whom from his

infancy I discovered the devil had taken such entire possession. But

reflections of this kind now come too late.

"I am sorry you have given away the living of Westerton so hastily.

I should have applied on that occasion earlier, had I thought you

would not have acquainted me previous to the disposition.----Your

objection to pluralities is being righteous over-much. If there were

any crime in the practice, so many godly men would not agree to it.

If the vicar of Aldergrove should die (as we hear he is in a

declining way), I hope you will think of me, since I am certain you

must be convinced of my most sincere attachment to your highest

welfare--a welfare to which all worldly considerations are as

trifling as the small tithes mentioned in Scripture are, when

compared to the weighty matters of the law.

I am, sir,

Your faithful humble servant,


This was the first time Thwackum ever wrote in this authoritative stile to Allworthy, and of this he had afterwards sufficient reason to repent, as in the case of those who mistake the highest degree of goodness for the lowest degree of weakness. Allworthy had indeed never liked this man. He knew him to be proud and ill-natured; he also knew that his divinity itself was tinctured with his temper, and such as in many respects he himself did by no means approve; but he was at the same time an excellent scholar, and most indefatigable in teaching the two lads. Add to this, the strict severity of his life and manners, an unimpeached honesty, and a most devout attachment to religion. So that, upon the whole, though Allworthy did not esteem nor love the man, yet he could never bring himself to part with a tutor to the boys, who was, both by learning and industry, extremely well qualified for his office; and he hoped, that as they were bred up in his own house, and under his own eye, he should be able to correct whatever was wrong in Thwackum's instructions.

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